Hereunder is a brief description of how to spend the auspicious day of ‘Aashura, in light of the Hadiths of Rasulullah (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam).
1. Observe the Fast and get one year’s sins forgiven
Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah (radiyallahu’anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
‘I hope from Allah that fasting on the day of ‘Aashura will atone for the sins of the preceding year’
(Sahih Muslim, hadith: 2738)
Note: The fast of ‘Aashura should be coupled with the fast of a day before or after, i.e, the ninth and tenth, or the tenth and eleventh. To fast all three days is also good.
The reward of fasting for one year
In a narration of Sahih Ibn Hibban, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“Fasting on the day of ‘Aashura is equivalent [i.e. carries the reward] of fasting for one year”
(Sahih Ibn Hibban; Al Ihsan, Hadith: 3631)
2. Spend extra on the family and acquire barakah for the rest of the year
Rasulullah (sallallahu ’alayhi wasallam) is reported to have said:
“Whoever expands his expenditure on his family on the day of ‘Aashura, Allah Ta’ala will increase his sustenance for the rest of that year”
See a detailed article on the authenticity of this narration here
3. Additional istighfar (seek forgiveness)
On this day, Allah Ta’ala excessively forgives those who repent.
Sayyiduna ‘Ali (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam) said:
‘…If you wish to fast after the month of Ramadan, then fast in Muharram, for indeed it is the month of Allah. [In this month] is a day in which Allah Ta’ala accepted the repentance of a nation, and in which He will accept the repentance of other people.’
(Sunan Tirmidhi, hadith: 741. Declared sound by Imam Tirmidhi. Also See footnotes of Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah on Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, hadith: 9314)
Hafiz Ibn Rajab (rahimahullah) has cited a few narrations which specify this day to be the 10th of Muharram, the day of ‘Aashura.
(Lataiful Ma’arif, pg. 104. Also see here)
4. Abstain from sin
To be able to receive pardon from Allah, one ought to ensure abstinence from sins.
5. Excessive dua for the Ummah.
On the Day of ‘Aashura, Allah Ta’ala granted salvation to Nabis: Nuh and Musa (‘alyhimas Salam) and their respective nations.
May Allah ‘Azza wa Jall deliver the Ummah of today to peace and salvation too.
Doing the above, together with other forms of good, will make this a day of true value for us.
May Allah Ta’ala grant us the tawfiq (ability). Amin.